Square Foot Gardening: Maximize Space & Yield

Square foot gardening is a highly efficient and space-saving method of growing plants in small gardens or urban spaces. By dividing the garden into square-foot sections, you can maximize your yield and minimize the effort required for maintenance. This comprehensive guide will explore the benefits, principles, and steps to create your own square-foot garden.

 Benefits of Square Foot Gardening

  • Maximized Space Utilization: Square foot gardening allows you to grow more plants in less space, making it perfect for those with limited gardening areas.
  • Reduced Maintenance: This method reduces the need for weeding, watering, and pest control, as plants are grown closer together and in a well-organized manner.
  • Higher Yields: Due to efficient use of space and resources, square-foot gardening can yield more produce per square foot than traditional row gardening.
  • Aesthetic Appeal: The well-structured design of square-foot gardens adds visual interest and organization to your outdoor 
Garden boxes

I highly recommend the following book to understand the
basics of Square foot Gardening.

Square foot garden beds

Gardening Shortcut Links

Square Foot Gardening Section

Key Principles of Square Foot Gardening

  1. Planning: Carefully plan your garden layout, considering the needs of each plant, sunlight exposure, and companion planting techniques.
  2. Spacing: Allocate each plant with an appropriate amount of space based on its size and growth habits.
  3. Vertical Gardening: Utilize trellises, cages, and other support structures to maximize growing space and encourage healthy plant growth.
  4. Succession Planting: Replant squares as soon as one crop is harvested, ensuring a continuous supply of fresh produce throughout the growing season.

Step-by-Step Guide to Creating a Square Foot Garden

Step 1: Choose the Right Location

Select a location that receives at least 6-8 hours of sunlight per day, has well-draining soil, and is easily accessible for watering and maintenance.

Step 2: Construct the Garden Bed

Keep beds three feet wide or less in any one direction to make the centre easily reachable. Build a raised bed that is 2 feet by 8 feet using untreated lumber or other non-toxic materials. Fill the bed with a high-quality soil mix, such as Mel’s Mix, which consists of equal parts compost, peat moss, and coarse vermiculite.

Step 3: Divide the Bed into Squares

Using string, wood, or other materials, divide the garden bed into 16 equal squares, each measuring 1 square foot.

Step 4: Plan Your Plantings

Refer to a square-foot gardening chart or guide to determine the optimal number of plants per square foot for each type of plant you want to grow. Also, consider companion planting principles to ensure the plants support each other’s growth.

Step 5: Plant Your Garden

Following the guidelines in your square foot gardening chart, plant seeds or seedlings in each square, ensuring proper spacing and depth. Water the plants thoroughly and monitor their growth regularly.

Step 6: Maintain Your Garden

Water your plants as needed, ensuring the soil remains consistently moist but not waterlogged. Weed regularly and apply organic mulch to help retain moisture and suppress weeds. Monitor for pests and diseases, and address issues promptly using organic or chemical controls as necessary.

Step 7: Harvest and Enjoy

Harvest your produce as it ripens, and enjoy the fruits of your labour! Remember to practice succession planting to maintain a steady supply of fresh produce throughout the season.

Common Challenges and Solutions in Square Foot Gardening

  • Overcrowding: If plants are too close together, they may compete for resources and become stressed. Ensure proper spacing, and consider thinning out plants if necessary.
  • Nutrient Deficiency: A nutrient-rich soil mix is essential for successful square-foot gardening. Regularly amend the soil with compost and other organic matter to maintain fertility.
  • Pests and Diseases: Monitor your garden closely for signs of pests and diseases. Employ integrated pest management (IPM) techniques, such as introducing beneficial insects, using organic pesticides, or applying chemical treatments when necessary.
  • Inadequate Sunlight: Ensure your garden location receives adequate sunlight, and rotate your crops to maximize sun exposure for all plants. Consider using reflective materials, such as white mulch or aluminium foil, to increase light levels for plants in shady areas.

Advanced Techniques for Square Foot Gardening

  • Interplanting: Combine fast-growing and slow-growing plants in the same square to maximize space utilization. As the fast-growing plants are harvested, the slow-growing plants will have more room to expand.
  • Vertical Gardening: Incorporate vertical growing elements, such as trellises, cages, and stakes, to support climbing plants like beans, peas, and cucumbers. This will increase your yield per square foot and add visual interest to your garden.
  • Crop Rotation: Rotate crops each season to prevent soil-borne diseases and pests and to maintain soil fertility. Group plants by their families and rotate their location in the garden each year.
  • Companion Planting: Pair plants that benefit each other, either by repelling pests, attracting beneficial insects, or providing necessary nutrients. For example, plant marigolds near tomatoes to deter nematodes or plant beans near corn to provide nitrogen to the corn plants.


In colder climates with shorter growing seasons, square-foot gardening with garden boxes offers several direct advantages:

  1. Faster Soil Warming: Raised garden boxes warm up more quickly in the spring as they are elevated from the ground. This allows gardeners to start planting earlier in the season, extending the overall growing period.

  2. Improved Drainage: Garden boxes typically have better drainage than in-ground gardens. In colder climates, where soil can become waterlogged due to snowmelt or heavy rainfall, raised beds help prevent root rot and other issues related to excess moisture.

  3. Flexible Microclimates: Garden boxes allow gardeners to create microclimates tailored to specific plants’ needs. For example, cold-hardy plants can be grown in shaded areas, while heat-loving plants can be placed in sunnier locations to maximize warmth.

  4. Easy Season Extension: Raised garden boxes make it simpler to implement season extension techniques, such as using row covers, cold frames, or hoop houses. These structures can be easily installed over the boxes to protect plants from frost, allowing gardeners to grow produce even in colder months.

  5. Better Pest Control: Garden boxes can help deter certain pests, such as rodents or slugs, that are more prevalent in colder climates. The elevated structure and well-defined borders can make it more difficult for pests to access the plants.

  6. Less Soil Compaction: In raised garden boxes, there is less risk of soil compaction due to walking or working on the soil. Compacted soil can limit plant growth, particularly in colder climates where the ground may freeze and thaw repeatedly throughout the season.

  7. Customizable Soil Mix: Gardeners can fill their garden boxes with a custom soil mix optimized for plant growth and specific to their climate. This can be particularly helpful in colder regions where native soil may be less fertile or poorly draining.

  8. Easier Soil Amendments: In raised garden boxes, it is easier to amend the soil with the necessary nutrients and organic matter. This is especially important in colder climates where nutrient availability may be limited due to slow decomposition rates or lower soil temperatures.

  9. Improved Root Growth: The loose, well-aerated soil in garden boxes promotes better root growth, allowing plants to establish themselves more quickly and efficiently. This is crucial in colder climates, where the shorter growing season requires plants to develop robust root systems to maximize nutrient and water uptake in a limited timeframe.

  10. Increased Plant Spacing Flexibility: Square foot gardening allows gardeners to optimize plant spacing, which can be particularly advantageous in colder climates. By planting certain cold-hardy crops closer together, gardeners can create a microclimate that retains heat and moisture, providing additional protection against frost and cold damage.

  11. Easier Maintenance: Raised garden boxes and the square-foot gardening method generally require less maintenance, which can be a significant advantage in colder climates where weather conditions may make traditional gardening more labour-intensive. Weeding, watering, and pest control are often more manageable in a well-organized square-foot garden.

  12. Higher Yields: Square-foot gardening with garden boxes often results in higher yields per square foot compared to traditional row gardening. In colder climates with shorter growing seasons, maximizing yields is essential to make the most of the available growing time and to ensure a bountiful harvest.


PlantRecommended Spacing (per square foot)
Beans (bush)9
Beans (pole)8
Collard Greens1
Melons1 per 2 square feet
Potatoes1 per 2 square feet
Pumpkins1 per 4 square feet
Squash (summer)1 per 2 square feet
Squash (winter)1 per 4 square feet
Tomatoes (determinate)1
Tomatoes (indeterminate)1
Zucchini1 per 2 square feet

Square Foot Gardening
Links and Resources


Excel Garden Planner
Converting a garden box into a mini greenhouse
Making a Garden Box
Using Grow Bags

Blog Posts

Grow Bags Putting your garden in a bag.
Simple Garden boxes

I highly recommend the following book to understand the
basics of Square foot Gardening.






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